Pips or point in percentage is the standardized unit of measurement to explain the change in value between two currencies. Pip is the smallest change an exchange rate can make. This uniform unit helps to protect investors’ from heavy losses. For most of the major currencies the value of pip is given by the 4th decimal place of the quotation. For example for EUR/USD, if the value moves from 1.1151 to 1.1152 then that 0.0001 rise in USD relative to Euro is “1 PIP”. But yen based currencies are exceptions and are displayed to only two decimal places. Example: if USD/JPY moves from 101.76 to 101.78, then this quote has 2 pip spread between the bid and ask price.
Also some brokers now offer fractional pips or popularly known as pipettes to provide the investor an additional digit of precision and transparency on the major currency pairs. For example if AUD/USD moves from 0.75840 to 0.75842, then the 0.00002 rise in USD is equal to 2 pipettes.