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nobile5 Nov 04 2020 at 06:51
What is the Distance Strength Index (PDI)?
The Power Distance Index (PDI) is a measure of acceptance of a hierarchy of power and wealth by individuals who make up the general population of a nation, culture, or company. Developed by Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede, PDI ultimately provides insight into the extent to which ordinary citizens, or subordinates, accept or challenge the authority of the person or persons responsible.


Hofstede's PDI is lower in countries and organizations where reference figures work closely with subordinates. PDI is higher in places with strong hierarchy.
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Understanding the distance strength indicator
Highly organized companies, societies, and organizations often have high scores. A high index indicates that the hierarchy is clearly defined, present and without objection.


A low index indicates a less strict or authoritarian regime. People in a community or group with a low index are willing to challenge authority and easily interact with authority figures in the expectation that they will be able to influence decisions.

PDI and the theory of cultural dimensions
The Force Distance Index is a component of Hofstede's cultural dimensional theory, which was the first attempt at identifying differences between cultures. This theory is now widely applied in a number of fields including cross-cultural psychology, intercultural communication, and international business.
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Based on factor analysis, cultural dimensional theory was based in its original form on the results of the Hofstede Global Survey of IBM Employee Values. The test was administered and the results collected between 1967 and 1973.

Based on these and other findings, Hofstede determined that there are six distinct dimensions to each culture: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism versus collectivity, short term versus long term, masculinity versus femininity, and restraint versus indulgence.
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PDI of the United States

(The original model only had four dimensions but was subsequently expanded to six. Long versus short term was added after Hofstede conducted independent research in Hong Kong, and leniency versus restraint was added in 2010).
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Business and PDI
Hofstede's theory gained great fame for its analysis of cultural and national differences. He has been particularly influential in the business world. As the global economy grows, the PDI and the factors that contribute to it have been used to enhance understanding of cultural differences and how they affect international business transactions.

Differences in perception of power appear to be particularly relevant during trade negotiations. For example, Austria has a power distance index of around 11, while most Arab countries have indices close to 80. The use of Austrian business practices or management methods in an Arab country may be counterproductive, or at least it can produce a degree of culture shock.

nobile5 Nov 04 2020 at 06:50
Two reasons for changing inventory allocation rules

Very simple, isn't it? not necessarily. While this easy-to-remember how-to guide can help remove some of the complexity from retirement planning, it is time to revisit this specific guideline. Over the past few decades, a lot has changed for the American investor. On the other hand, life expectancy here, as in many developed countries, has risen steadily. Compared to just 25 years ago, Americans in 2017 lived nearly three years longer.1 Not only do we have to increase nest eggs, but we also have more time to grow our money and recover from the fall.
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Meanwhile, US Treasuries are paying a fraction of what they previously paid. As of March 2020, 10-year Treasuries yield less than 1% annually. In the early 1980s, investors could count on interest rates of over 10%

Revised guidelines
For many investment professionals, facts like these mean that the "100 minus your life" axiom puts investors at risk of running out of money in their final years. Some have modified the rule to 110 minus your age - or even 120 minus your age, for those with a higher tolerance for risk.
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Not surprisingly, many fund companies follow these revised guidelines - or even stricter guidelines - when assembling target appointment funds. For example, funds with a target date of 2035 are for investors who are currently around 50 years old (as of 2020). But instead of allocating 50% of its assets to stocks, the Vanguard Target Retirement 2035 Fund has allocated roughly 75%. The T. Rowe Price Retirement 2035 Fund increases the risk, with nearly 80% in equity.
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It is important to keep in mind that these guidelines are only a starting point for making decisions. A variety of factors may shape the investment strategy, including retirement age and the assets needed to maintain an individual's lifestyle. Because women live nearly five years longer than men on average, their retirement costs are higher than men and an incentive to be more aggressive with their eggs.
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The bottom line
Establishing an individual's stock allocation on the basis of age can be a useful tool for retirement planning by encouraging investors to slowly reduce risk over time. However, with adults living longer and receiving fewer rewards from "safe" investments, it may be time to amend the "100 Minus Your Life" guidelines and take more risks with pension funds.


nobile5 Nov 04 2020 at 06:50
What is the sliding path?
Hover path refers to a formula that specifies the asset allocation mix of the target date fund, based on the number of years until the target date. The sliding path creates an asset allocation that usually becomes more conservative (i.e. includes more fixed-income assets and fewer stocks) as the fund approaches the target date.
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How does the glide track work
Each family of target date funds has a different sliding path, which determines how the asset mix will change as the target date approaches. Some of them have a steeper trajectory, and have become significantly more conservative a few years before the target date. Others take a more incremental approach.

The mix of assets on the target date could also be very different. Some target date funds assume that the investor wants a high degree of security and liquidity because he may use the funds to purchase an annuity. Other target date funds assume that the investor is holding funds and thus includes more shares in the asset mix, reflecting a longer time horizon.
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Target date funds are becoming popular among those saving for retirement. It is based on the simple premise that the younger the investor, the greater the time horizon available to him or her before retirement, and the greater the risk he can take to increase the potential returns. A young investor's portfolio, for example, should mostly contain stocks. In contrast, an older investor might have a more conservative portfolio, with fewer shares and more fixed income investments.

Types of glide tracks
Regression regression path
An investor who uses the declining declining path gradually reduces his equity allocation every year nearing retirement. For example, at the age of 50, an investor who owns 40% of the shares in his or her portfolio may reduce his allocation of shares by 1% each year. They then increase their allocations for safer assets, such as Treasury bills.
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Hard glide track
A clipboard that uses a fixed regression path maintains the same customizations. For example, an investor may own 65% of shares and 35% of bonds. If these provisions are deviated due to price changes in assets, the portfolio is rebalanced.
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Sliding track height
Portfolios that use this approach initially have a larger allocation of bonds compared to equities. Equity allocation increases as the bond matures, as long as the stocks in the portfolio do not depreciate. For example, an investor's portfolio might start allocating 70% of bonds and 30% of shares. After a large portion of the bond matures, the portfolio may own 60% of the shares and 40% of the bonds.


nobile5 Nov 04 2020 at 06:46
What are the risk measures?
Risk metrics are statistical metrics that are historical predictors of investment risk and volatility, and are also key components of modern portfolio theory (MPT). MPT is a standard financial and academic methodology for evaluating the performance of a stock or equity fund against its benchmark index.


There are five main measures of risk, and each provides a unique way of assessing the risks involved in the investments under consideration. The five measures include alpha, beta, R-squared, standard deviation, and Sharpe ratio. Risk measures can be used individually or together to conduct a risk assessment. When comparing two potential investments, it is wise to compare, for example, to determine which investment carries the most risk.


The main concerns
Risk metrics are statistical measures that are historical predictors of an investment's risk and volatility.
Risk metrics are also key components of Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT), which is a standard financial methodology for evaluating investment performance.
The five major risk measures include alpha, beta, R-squared, standard deviation, and Sharpe ratio.
Understand risk measures
alpha
Alpha measures risk related to a market or a specific benchmark. For example, if the S&P 500 is considered the benchmark for a specific fund, then the fund's activity will be compared to the activity that the specific index is experiencing. If a fund outperforms the benchmark, it is said to have alpha positive. If the fund's performance falls below the performance of the benchmark, it is considered to have a negative alpha.
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Beta
Beta measures the volatility or systemic risk of a fund compared to a specified market or benchmark. The beta version of ONE indicates that the box is expected to move along with the indicator. Versions less than one are less capricious than the standard, while versions over one are more capricious than the standard.

R-squared
R-Squared measures the percentage of investment movement attributable to moves in its benchmark index. The R squared value represents the correlation between the considered investment and the associated benchmark. For example, an R-squared value of 95 can be considered to be highly correlated, while an R-squared value of 50 can be considered low.
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The U.S. Treasury Act serves as the benchmark for fixed-income securities, while the S&P 500 serves as the benchmark for stocks.

standard deviation
Standard Deviation is a method of measuring the dispersion of data with respect to the mean value of a data set and provides a measure of investment volatility.

In terms of its relationship to investments, standard deviation measures how much the return on investment deviates from the normal or expected average return.
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Specific ratio
The Sharpe ratio measures performance according to the risks associated with it. This is done by removing the risk-free rate of return on investment, such as US Treasuries, from the expert rate of return.

This is then divided by the standard deviation associated with the investment and serves as an indicator of whether the return on investment is due to a prudent investment or due to the assumption of excess risk.

nobile5 Nov 04 2020 at 06:44
Understand fundamental analysis
All equity analyzes attempt to determine whether the securities are being properly valued within the wider market. Fundamental analysis is usually done from a macro to junior perspective in order to identify which securities are not being priced properly by the market.


Analysts usually study, in order, the general state of the economy and then the specific industry strength before focusing on the performance of the individual firm to arrive at a fair market value per share.

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Fundamental analysis uses general data to evaluate the value of inventory or any other type of security. For example, an investor can perform a fundamental analysis on the value of a bond by looking at economic factors such as interest rates and the general condition of the economy, then
Study information about a bond issuer, such as possible changes to its credit rating.

For stocks, fundamental analysis uses revenue, earnings, future growth, and return on equity,
Profit margins and other data to determine the core value of the company and the potential for future growth. All of these data are available in the company's financial statements (more on that below).
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Fundamental analysis is most often used for stocks, but it is useful for evaluating any security, from bonds to derivatives. If you think about the basics, from the broader economy to the details of the company, you are doing a fundamental analysis.
Investment and fundamental analysis
The analyst creates a form to determine the estimated value of a company's share price based on publicly available data. This value is only an estimate, opinion of the educated analyst, of what the company's share price should be equal to the current market price. Some analysts may refer to the estimated price as the company's intrinsic value.
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If an analyst calculates that the value of the stock should be significantly higher than the current market price of the stock, he may publish a buy or overweight rating for the stock. This serves as a recommendation for investors who follow this analyst. If the analyst calculates an intrinsic value below the current market price, then the stock is considered overvalued and a recommendation to sell or reduce weight is issued.

Investors who follow these recommendations expect that they can buy stocks on positive recommendations because such stocks should have a higher potential to rise over time. Likewise, stocks with unfavorable ratings are expected to have a higher probability of falling prices. These stocks are candidates for removal from the current portfolios or adding them as "short" positions.

This stock analysis method is the opposite of technical analysis, which predicts the direction of prices by analyzing historical market data such as price and volume.

Quantitative and qualitative fundamental analysis
The problem with defining the word fundamentals is that it can cover anything related to a company's economic well-being. Obviously, it includes numbers like revenue and profits, but it can also include anything from a company's market share to its management quality.

The various fundamental factors can be classified into two categories: quantitative and qualitative. The financial meaning of these terms is not much different from their standard definitions. Here's how the dictionary defines the terms:
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Quantity - “related to information that can be shown in numbers and quantities.” 1
Quality - "related to the nature or standard of something, not its quantity." 2
In this context, quantitative fundamentals are difficult numbers. They are the measurable characteristics of businesses. This is why the largest source of quantitative data is financial data. Revenue, profits, assets, and more can be measured with great precision.

The qualitative fundamentals are less realistic. It may include the quality of the company's chief executives, brand recognition, patents, and technology.

There is no qualitative or quantitative analysis that is better in nature. Many analysts consider it together.
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Qualitative basics for consideration
There are four main fundamentals that analysts always keep in mind when dealing with a company. They are all quality, not quantity. They include:

Business model: What exactly does the company do? This is not as clear as it appears. If the company's business model is based on selling chicken for fast food, is it making its money that way? Or is it just a rush on royalties and franchise fees?